5G: The Saga Continues

We hear about 5G rollouts across the world, but there’s
still a great deal of confusion for American consumers.

There are still more questions than answers when it comes to
5G. We’ll attempt to give you a little more insight today.

On the phone front, Samsung
S10 5G
and LG’s V50 ThinQ are
slated to hit the US market later this year. A 5G version of the upscale Samsung Fold is mooted but with no firm
carrier announcement.

Note: Some specifics regarding phones and carriers
are accurate at the time of writing but subject to noticeable change
.

At the moment, then, from the US to the Middle East, we hear
a great deal of marketing hype from telecom companies without too much action.
That is changing, as you’ll see following
our overview of 5G, but is it still all talk?

Before we explore why things are currently not firing on all
cylinders, what is 5G exactly?

What Is 5G?

Brewing for the better part of a decade, 5G is the latest iteration of cellular
mobile comms
, unsurprisingly the fifth generation.

The idea is that 5G will ultimately replace 4G LTE while in
the meantime augmenting the current standard.

Both download and
upload speeds will be dramatically improved
.

Although 5G might seem like the latest in a long line of similar cellular communications, it varies substantially from 4G LTE in several ways.

Latency will also
drastically decrease
and is simply the time it takes devices to communicate
with each other over wireless networks. Think about the Ping figure on your
network speed test: the lower, the better with latency.

The first of these differences is the way 5G operates on three spectrum bands but what does that mean for you?

5G Spectrum
Bands: What’s The Story?

Unlike LTE, there are three coverage bands for 5G:

  • Low-Band Spectrum
  • Mid-Band Spectrum
  • High-Band Spectrum

Low-Band Spectrum

This band of frequencies below 1GHz is the spectrum
currently used by most US carriers for 4G LTE. As such, it’s very quickly
becoming congested to the point of saturation.

On the plus side, this lower spectrum of frequencies
delivers excellent coverage and penetration so what the problem is?

Well, aside from overuse and bottlenecking, data speeds max
out at 100Mbps.

After picking up a considerable tranche of the 600MHz
spectrum back in 2017, T-Mobile is capitalizing on this auction acquisition by
ramping up a 5G low-band spectrum network.

Mid-Band Spectrum

For superior coverage along with improved latency, mid-band
spectrum also comes with a severe drawback.

Penetration.

Much like 5GHz WiFi is rapid but struggles to makes its way
walls or ceilings, mid-band spectrum frequencies for the new generation of
cellular suffers the same fate.

Speed is jacked up, though. 1Gbps is a realistic maximum.

Sprint is the dominant player with these mid-band
frequencies.

To address the issues of penetration and also coverage area,
Sprint is using Massive
MIMO
. This physical-layer technology groups large antenna arrays onto a
single box of a base station and allows users to receive multiple simultaneous
beams.

Combined with this, Sprint is using Beamforming to enhance
5G service generally. By sending a single more focused signal, consistency is
improved.

High-Band Spectrum

mmWave or high-band spectrum brings latency to an all-time
low with speeds ratcheted up to an eye-popping 10Gbps.

Woeful building penetration along with low coverage area are
the twin bugbears of this range of frequencies for 5G.

AT&T and Verizon will both roll out 5G on the high-band
spectrum. Until networks are built out more robustly, these carriers will take
advantage of piggybacking off LTE.

5G on this spectrum uses small cells, very low-power base
stations targeting smaller areas geographically and results in ultra-rapid
coverage along with low latency for the double-win.

Since the new 5G networks initially use 4G to establish a
connection with the cell, 5G wireless devices are also 4G LTE-enabled and also
comes in handy in any areas where 5G is not available. (Think of how your 4G
handset sometimes reverts to 3G coverage.)

New Generation,
New Standards

5G networks meeting IMT-2020
specs
will skyrocket device and network capability.

These areas and performance targets are considered central:

  • Area Traffic Capacity: Total traffic across the coverage area of 1000 Mbps/m²
  • Connection Density: Total number of devices for each unit area of 1 million devices per km²
  • Energy-Efficiency: Data sent and received energy consumption per unit equal to 4G
  • Latency: 1ms
  • Mobility: 500 km/h maximum speed for handoff
  • Peak Data Rate: 20Gbps
  • Spectrum Efficiency: Throughput at least triple that of 4G
  • User-Experienced Data Rate: Achievable data rate of 100Mbps or
    1Gbps in hotspot cases

The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has divided 5G network services into three broad categories:

  1. eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband): Handsets
  2. URLLC (Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications): Autonomous vehicles, industrial applications
  3. MMTC (Massive Machine Type Communications) Sensors

5G: Key Benefits

With the technical background in place, how about some of
the leading benefits 5G will bring about?

3 of the major draws of this new generation of comms are:

  • Speed
  • Latency
  • New Use Cases

As a result of such improved performance across the board,
how will 5G be used in the near future?

5 Uses For 5G

Rather than straying into the land of maybes, we’ll focus on five core areas where 5G will be pivotal in
the coming years

  1. . Cell Phones
  2. Updated Mobile Broadband
  3. Infrastructure
  4. Remote Device Control
  5. Health Care
  6. Self-Driving Vehicles

We’ll only touch on these briefly although each of these
areas is broad and deep with possibilities. We’ll dive down deeper in some
separate planned pieces over the coming weeks as 5G develops before our eyes.

1) Updated Mobile Broadband

The original purpose of 5G, initially at least, is to help
address the issues affecting mobile broadband.

With carriers in most significant cities rapidly running out
of LTE capacity, things have reached critical mass. You’ll almost certainly
have noticed this yourself with 4G seemingly slower than your old 3G at peak
times of the day.

By throwing those new spectrums unencumbered by commercial
traffic into the fray, 5G will lighten the load and speed things up.

2) Infrastructure

As outlined at CES
2019
, 5G will ultimately help cities to run more efficiently.

From inexpensive surveillance cameras to ever-more delicate
sensors helping local authorities deal with public safety to utility companies
able to improve tracking and offer remote services, the impact on the way
cities run is set to explode when 5G gets going.

3) Remote Device Control

The incredibly low latency of 5G will make remote control of
heavy machinery more widespread and practical as well as less dangerous.

If skilled operatives are in short supply somewhere in the
world, expert technicians can wade in from afar and take the helm.   

4) Health Care

The ramifications for health care with the advent of 5G are
enormous and wide-reaching.

From remote monitoring and smart pills to telemedicine and
potentially, eventually, remote surgery, healthcare is on the cusp of some
seismic changes.

5) Self-Driving Vehicles

As 5G starts rolling out, expect to see growing legions of
autonomous cars.

Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is one area also sure to gain higher currency with 5G.

So.

We’ve deliberately kept those use cases brief to avoid
veering too far from the imminent future but how about the most important
factor for smart home aficionados?

How will 5G impact the Internet of Things?

5G and the
Internet of Things

While the sensors in contemporary smart home devices are more than capable of communicating, this is achieved at the expense of considerable resources. Also, this is dragging LTE data capacity further downward.

Vastly improved speeds and latency will mean enormous
numbers of devices able to connect to one base station. The efficiency of the
IoT will soar.

Exciting times loom for home automation once 5G takes
hold.

Before we round out with a look at when the marketing fever
will translate into 5G handsets in the US, a glimpse at the 5G heavyweights on
the world stage…

5G: Major Global
Players

The race is on across the world to roll out 5G.

Saudi Arabia announced a massive
commercial rollout of 5G
back at Mobile World Congress with 10,000 base
stations and 100MHz total spectrum offering Saudis the broadest and swiftest 5G
coverage in the Middle East. This move is projected to add $19 billion to the
Saudi coffers showing the extent of the impact 5G will have once lived.

Despite this, it’s still likely that the first robust
commercial 5G services will land in the US, Japan, Korea, and China. As we
mentioned, at the moment there’s still a lot of talks and minimal action.

So which companies are battling for a slice of this
lucrative pie?

Ericsson

While not a serious player in the US, Ericsson is working on
some exciting connected vehicle projects with Volvo.

Beyond this, Ericsson is conducting some field trials in
tandem with Chinese carriers.

Maybe the old flip-phone provider will make a resurgence using 5G as a
platform.

Huawei

Huawei started the 5G race strong but ran into some serious
roadblocks.

Despite boasting over 20 5G contracts around the world, the
Chinese firm has come under heavy flak amid security concerns.

There have been outright bans in the US, Australia, and
India with many other countries looking to follow the leader.

How this plays out for Huawei remains to be seen.

We’re not here to probe whether this is a genuine issue of
hardware issues or more of a political move, but the bans have hit Huawei hard
whatever the root cause.

Nokia

Once the darling of cell phones, Nokia is making something
of a comeback.

Some huge partnerships with British carriers along with a
deal to supply Tokyo with 5G networks for the 2020 Olympics suggest the Finnish
company might be making the comeback of the year.

Qualcomm

By far the most significant player in the 5G arena, Qualcomm has fully 15% of 5G patents.

From hardware to network solutions to the Snapdragon 855
Mobile Platform, Qualcomm leads the pack by some distance.

Samsung

Aside from the S10 5G – more on that shortly – Samsung is
also helping carriers with network solutions.

As well as working with AT&T and Verizon, Samsung has
been chosen by South Korea Telecom to furnish the company with 5G solutions.

ZTE

Chinese outfit ZTE closed a deal with the Middle Eastern
carrier Ooredoo Group in an attempt to build on work carried out with the
Chinese government.

Like all big companies, ZTE is desperate for a slice of the 5G, and the future looks rosy.

So, with that whistle-stop tour of the world, what’s the deal
with 5G here in the US?

AT&T vs.
Verizon In The Battle For 5G

AT&T can now claim 5G service in 19
American cities
with published
speed tests
looking impressive overall.

Verizon has also launched
a 5G network
in some areas of Chicago and Minneapolis.

Unfortunately, this is still far from encouraging for you,
the consumer as of today, mid-April.

With AT&T, there’s been some furor about those speed
tests being somewhat skewed. We have to say that actual user data has been
pretty favorable. Twitter has been ablaze with some pretty heavy-duty
triple-figure download speeds. (Upload speeds, to date, have been
underwhelming.)

How about the lack of available devices, though?

Well, that is a
problem albeit one that early adopters are managing to navigate.

With AT&T, you’ll need the Netgear Nighthawk 5G Hotspot. Promises of a spring launch of S10 5G are looking more realistic now the phone is on the Korean market. For now, that hotspot is the only workable option but here’s the kicker: it’s not available in stores. So, you’ll need to be among a select group of business partners or lucky enough to fall under one of the new 5G markets. It costs $500, so it’s certainly not cheap either.

Verizon has edged slightly further ahead with a commercially-available smartphone, albeit one requiring a mod.

This sudden shift happened a bright week ahead of the
proposed launch, quite possibly due to developments in South Korea with
carriers going live with 5G.

The smartphone is perhaps not what you would associate with
early 5G either. You’ll need the Motorola Moto Z3 along with a 5G Moto Mod
costing an extra $200. It will also run you another $10 a month to receive a 5G
service that, in all honesty, is barely fit for purpose right now. While speed
tests have shown steady download speeds, latency is not yet what it should be
and upload speeds are an utter disappointment.

And then there’s the incredibly sparse coverage.

So.

There we have it as of April 11, 2019.

How things push forward from here is anyone’s guess, but we
would predict a rapid acceleration now from hollow hype to growingly usable 5G.
For cellular service and smart home tech alike, we’re genuinely excited about
how things will pan out, and we’re all waiting for those Samsung S10 5Gs to
drop.

We would advise waiting a month or two before committing to
5G as the teething problems right now make it a somewhat frustrating undertaking.
What we can say with confidence is that 5G will be a game-changer in more ways
than you might imagine.

Final Word

We trust you’ve now got a clearer picture as to why you’re still not able to get going at full
steam with the new and improved generation of cellular communication.

We’ve also hopefully given you a little more background
information on what 5G is, how it works and why it’s such a potential
game-changer.

All that remains now is for
that potential to be realized so watch this space for updates and more of the
latest smart home news.

The post 5G: The Saga Continues appeared first on Smarthome Blog.

Reference: Smart Home